Adherence to the MIND dietary pattern and sleep quality, sleep related outcomes and mental health in male adults: a cross-sectional study

BMC Psychiatry. 2022 Mar 5;22(1):167. doi: 10.1186/s12888-022-03816-3.


Background: A large number of studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean and DASH diets with psychological health as well as sleep related outcomes. However, only a few number of studies have examined the association of their newly proposed hybrid, Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) dietary pattern, with sleep quality and sleep related outcomes.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 male health professions (mean age 38.67 years). Dietary information was collected using a validated 168-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The MIND score was computed based on major dietary components emphasized or minimized in this pattern. The higher the MIND score of a subject, the greater his adherence to the MIND pattern. Mental health was evaluated using the 21-item depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS-21). Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to assess sleep quality. Sleep-related outcomes (day-time sleepiness and insomnia) were also evaluated using standard questionnaires RESULTS: No significant associations were found between adherence to the MIND diet score and odds of stress, anxiety and depression either in the crude or multivariable-adjusted models (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, participants with the greatest adherence to the MIND diet had lower odds of poor sleep quality (OR for T3 vs. T1: 0.56 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.92), P-trend = 0.023). The results remained significant after full adjustment for confounding variables (P-trend = 0.042). Participants in the highest tertile of MIND diet had a 42% lower odds of daytime sleepiness in the crude and multivariable-adjusted model (P-trend < 0.05). Although no significant association was observed between adherence to the MIND diet and severity of insomnia in the crude model (P-trend = 0.055), the multivariable-adjusted model showed that the highest adherence to the MIND diet was associated with lower odds of insomnia (OR for T3 vs. T1: 0.54 (95% CI: 0.31, 0.93), P-trend = 0.031).

Conclusion: While no significant associations were found between adherence to the MIND diet and stress, anxiety and depression, greater adherence to the MIND diet were associated with lower odds of poor sleep quality and sleep-related outcomes.

Keywords: Cross-sectional; Daytime sleepiness; Insomnia; MIND diet; Mental Health; Sleep quality.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Diet, Mediterranean*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Health
  • Sleep
  • Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders*
  • Sleep Quality