Objective: Studies have noted racial/ethnic disparities in coronary artery disease intervention strategies. We investigated trends and outcomes of coronary artery disease treatment choice (coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention) stratified by race/ethnicity.
Methods: We queried the National Inpatient Sample for patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention (2002-2017). Outcomes were stratified by race/ethnicity (White, African American, Hispanic, Asian). Multivariable logistic regression evaluated associations between race/ethnicity and receiving coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention, in-hospital mortality, and costs.
Results: Over the 15-year period, 2,426,917 isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries and 7,184,515 percutaneous coronary interventions were performed. Compared with White patients, African American patients were younger (62 [interquartile range, 53-70] vs 66 [interquartile range, 57-75] years), were more likely to have Medicaid insurance (12.2% vs 4.4%), and had more comorbidities (Charlson-Deyo index, 1.9 ± 1.6 vs 1.7 ± 1.6) (all P < .01). After adjustment for patient comorbidities, presence of acute myocardial infarction, insurance status, and geography, African Americans were the least likely of all racial/ethnic groups to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (odds ratio, 0.76; P < .01), a consistent trend throughout the study. African American patients had higher risk-adjusted mortality after coronary artery bypass grafting (odds ratio, 1.09; P < .01). Race/ethnicity was not associated with increased mortality after percutaneous coronary intervention. African American patients had higher hospitalization costs for coronary artery bypass grafting (+$5816; P < .01) and percutaneous coronary intervention (+$856; P < .01) after controlling for confounders.
Conclusions: In this contemporary national analysis, risk-adjusted frequency of coronary artery bypass grafting versus percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease differed by race/ethnicity. African American patients had lower odds of undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting and worse outcomes. Reasons for these differences merit further investigation to identify opportunities to reduce potential disparities.
Keywords: coronary artery bypass; ethnicity; ischemic heart disease; outcomes; percutaneous coronary interventions; race.
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