Based on 28 reported patients, constant features of the syndrome of hypertension and hyperkalaemia are hyperkalaemia, hyperchloraemia, normal renal glomerular function and, in all adult patients, hypertension. Inconstant features include short stature, intellectual impairment and muscle weakness. Levels of renin and aldosterone are low, but respond to dietary salt restriction and diuretic therapy, both of which reverse the hypertension and hyperkalaemia. The basic abnormality is excessive renal sodium retention, leading to chronic suppression of renin and aldosterone; the latter is then hyporesponsive to the hyperkalaemic stimulus. Dietary salt loading or impaired production of any natriuretic or chloriuretic factor (for example atrial natriuretic peptide or renal natriuretic prostaglandins) would predispose to development of the syndrome. With normal GFR, this appears to be a unique mechanism for hypertension and hyperkalaemia.