Background Despite favorable outcomes of surgical pulmonary artery (PA) reconstruction, isolated proximal stenting of the central PAs is common clinical practice for patients with peripheral PA stenosis in association with Williams and Alagille syndromes. Given the technical challenges of PA reconstruction and the morbidities associated with transcatheter interventions, the hemodynamic consequences of all treatment strategies must be rigorously assessed. Our study aims to model, assess, and predict hemodynamic outcomes of transcatheter interventions in these patients. Methods and Results Isolated proximal and "extensive" interventions (stenting and/or balloon angioplasty of proximal and lobar vessels) were performed in silico on 6 patient-specific PA models. Autoregulatory adaptation of the cardiac output and downstream arterial resistance was modeled in response to intervention-induced hemodynamic perturbations. Postintervention computational fluid dynamics predictions were validated in 2 stented patients and quantitatively assessed in 4 surgical patients. Our computational methods accurately predicted postinterventional PA pressures, the primary indicators of success for treatment of peripheral PA stenosis. Proximal and extensive treatment achieved median reductions of 14% and 40% in main PA systolic pressure, 27% and 56% in pulmonary vascular resistance, and 10% and 45% in right ventricular stroke work, respectively. Conclusions In patients with Williams and Alagille syndromes, extensive transcatheter intervention is required to sufficiently reduce PA pressures and right ventricular stroke work. Transcatheter therapy was shown to be ineffective for long-segment stenosis and pales hemodynamically in comparison with published outcomes of surgical reconstruction. Regardless of the chosen strategy, a virtual treatment planning platform could identify lesions most critical for optimizing right ventricular afterload.
Keywords: computational fluid dynamics; peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis; pulmonary artery reconstruction; pulmonary artery stenting; pulmonary hemodynamics.