Examining post-donation outcomes in Hispanic/Latinx living kidney donors in the United States: A systematic review

Am J Transplant. 2022 Jul;22(7):1737-1753. doi: 10.1111/ajt.17017. Epub 2022 Apr 18.


We conducted a systematic review to assess outcomes in Hispanic donors and explore how Hispanic ethnicity was characterized. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus through October 2021. Two reviewers independently screened study titles, abstracts, and full texts; they also qualitatively synthesized results and independently assessed quality of included studies. Eighteen studies met our inclusion criteria. Study sample sizes ranged from 4007 to 143,750 donors and mean age ranged from 37 to 54 years. Maximum follow-up time of studies varied from a perioperative donor nephrectomy period to 30 years post-donation. Hispanic donors ranged between 6% and 21% of the donor populations across studies. Most studies reported Hispanic ethnicity under race or a combined race and ethnicity category. Compared to non-Hispanic White donors, Hispanic donors were not at increased risk for post-donation mortality, end-stage kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, non-pregnancy-related hospitalizations, or overall perioperative surgical complications. Compared to non-Hispanic White donors, most studies showed Hispanic donors were at higher risk for diabetes mellitus following nephrectomy; however, mixed findings were seen regarding the risk for post-donation chronic kidney disease and hypertension. Future studies should evaluate cultural, socioeconomic, and geographic differences within the heterogeneous Hispanic donor population, which may further explain variation in health outcomes.

Keywords: clinical research/practice; disparities; donors and donation; donors and donation: donor follow-up; donors and donation: living; health services and outcomes research; kidney transplantation/nephrology; kidney transplantation: living donor.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic* / surgery
  • Kidney Transplantation* / adverse effects
  • Living Donors
  • Middle Aged
  • Nephrectomy / adverse effects
  • Tissue and Organ Harvesting / adverse effects
  • United States / epidemiology