Unraveling pathological mechanisms in neurological disorders: the impact of cell-based and organoid models

Neural Regen Res. 2022 Oct;17(10):2131-2140. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.335836.


Cell-based models are a promising tool in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of neurological disorders as well as aiding in the discovery and development of future drug therapies. The greatest challenge is creating cell-based models that encapsulate the vast phenotypic presentations as well as the underlying genotypic etiology of these conditions. In this article, we discuss the recent advancements in cell-based models for understanding the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. We reviewed studies discussing the progression of cell-based models to the advancement of three-dimensional models and organoids that provide a more accurate model of the pathophysiology of neurological disorders in vivo. The better we understand how to create more precise models of the neurological system, the sooner we will be able to create patient-specific models and large libraries of these neurological disorders. While three-dimensional models can be used to discover the linking factors to connect the varying phenotypes, such models will also help to understand the early pathophysiology of these neurological disorders and how they are affected by their environment. The three-dimensional cell models will allow us to create more specific treatments and uncover potentially preventative measures in neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; autism spectrum disorder; cell-based model; central nervous system; induced pluripotent stem cells; mesenchymal stem cells; organ-on-a-chip; organoid model; three-dimensional model.

Publication types

  • Review