Surgical Complications in the Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Treatment

Curr Urol Rep. 2022 May;23(5):83-92. doi: 10.1007/s11934-022-01091-z. Epub 2022 Mar 9.


Purpose of review: There are a variety of treatment options for men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH); transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) remains the gold standard surgical treatment. The field continues to evolve with the introduction of new energy and laser technologies, increasing adoption of enucleation techniques, in addition to the advent of minimally invasive surgical technologies (MIST) that enable office-based treatments. The choice in surgical management has become very nuanced depending on a variety of patient and anatomic factors. There continues to be high success rates for surgical treatment of BPH; however, the risk profiles vary across the various surgical treatments. We sought to evaluate contemporary series and summarize the experience of complications associated with BPH treatment and management of these complications.

Recent findings: A comprehensive literature review was performed, and identified 79 manuscripts, published between 2005 and 2021 characterizing the diagnosis and management of complications following BPH surgery. Commonly cited issues included bleeding, ureteral orifice injury, bladder neck injury, rectal injury, TURP syndrome, bladder neck contractures, urethral stricture disease, refractory OAB symptoms, and complications unique to new modalities of treatment. The practicing urologist has multiple surgical options to choose from in treating patients with symptomatic BPH. The surgical management of BPH is generally well tolerated with high objective success rates that allow for significant improvement in urinary quality of life. It is critical to understand the potential complications associated with these various treatment options, which will enable trainees and practicing urologists to better counsel patients and manage these potential complications.

Keywords: Aquablation; Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate; Rezum; UroLift; Urologic surgical complications.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prostate
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / complications
  • Prostatic Hyperplasia* / surgery
  • Quality of Life
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate* / adverse effects
  • Transurethral Resection of Prostate* / methods
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urethral Stricture* / surgery