Influence of Female Sex Hormones in Different Stages of Women on Periodontium

J Midlife Health. 2021 Oct-Dec;12(4):263-266. doi: 10.4103/jmh.jmh_142_21. Epub 2022 Jan 20.


The primary etiologic factor for periodontal diseases is "Dental plaque." Although pathogenic bacteria in dental plaque are required for the incidence of periodontal disease, a susceptible host is also very important. The susceptibility of the host can be modified by many systemic factors with hormones level being one. The periodontium shows an exaggerated inflammatory response to plaque modified by female sex hormones during puberty, pregnancy, in women taking oral contraceptives, and at the postmenopausal stage. This review provides an in detail analysis of how periodontium is influenced by the fluctuation in sex steroid hormones of females during different phases of their lifetime and to discuss how much the same hormone at different ages and stages shows an exaggerated gingival response to plaque.

Keywords: Female sex hormones; menopause; periodontium; pregnancy; puberty.

Publication types

  • Review