Methylation affects different aspects of genetic material stability, gene expression regulation, and histone modification. The previous reports depicted that DNA and histone methylation regulates plant growth and development. In this study, we evaluated the effects of DNA and histone methylation on 'Hongjia' strawberry and 'Lichun' tomato. We investigated the transient transformation system for arginine methyltransferase (FvPRMT1.5) overexpression and interference and assessed the phenotypic appearance and mRNA and protein expression levels. Results depicted that changes in methylation levels caused inhibition of carotenoids and anthocyanins. Furthermore, the profiling of aroma components was altered in response to 5-azacytidine. DNA hypomethylation induced the expression levels of genes involved in photosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and hormone signal transduction pathways, while the expression levels of related proteins showed a downward trend. Overall, we proposed a model that reveals the possible regulatory effects of DNA and histone methylation during fruit ripening.
Keywords: DNA methylation; fruit ripening; gene expression; histone modification; proteomics; regulatory factors.