Missense mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinson's disease (PD); however, pathways regulating LRRK2 subcellular localization, function, and turnover are not fully defined. We performed quantitative mass spectrometry-based interactome studies to identify 48 novel LRRK2 interactors, including the microtubule-associated E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM1 (tripartite motif family 1). TRIM1 recruits LRRK2 to the microtubule cytoskeleton for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by binding LRRK2911-919, a nine amino acid segment within a flexible interdomain region (LRRK2853-981), which we designate the "regulatory loop" (RL). Phosphorylation of LRRK2 Ser910/Ser935 within LRRK2 RL influences LRRK2's association with cytoplasmic 14-3-3 versus microtubule-bound TRIM1. Association with TRIM1 modulates LRRK2's interaction with Rab29 and prevents upregulation of LRRK2 kinase activity by Rab29 in an E3-ligase-dependent manner. Finally, TRIM1 rescues neurite outgrowth deficits caused by PD-driving mutant LRRK2 G2019S. Our data suggest that TRIM1 is a critical regulator of LRRK2, controlling its degradation, localization, binding partners, kinase activity, and cytotoxicity.
© 2022 Stormo et al.