The Effects of Vitamin D Application on NaF-Induced Cytotoxicity in Osteoblast Cells (hFOB 1.19)

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2023 Feb;201(2):698-705. doi: 10.1007/s12011-022-03177-8. Epub 2022 Mar 10.


This study was planned to evaluate the effect of vitamin D administration on cytotoxicity due to fluoride exposure in vitro. NaF (IC50) and vitamin D (proliferative) were applied to human osteoblast (hFOB 1.19) cells. The major genes of apoptotic, autophagic, and necrotic pathways were determined by RT-PCR. 2-∆∆Ct formulation was used for expression analysis. In the NaF group, caspase 3, Bax, Bad, Bak, Bclx, Atg3, Atg5, Atg6, pG2, LC3-I, LC3-II, RIP1, and RIP3 genes were increased (2.6-15 times). It was observed that the expressions of these genes approached the control when vitamin D was given together with NaF. The Bcl2 gene increased significantly (sixfold) with the effect of NaF, and was down-regulated to some extent with additional vitamin D administration, but still more than in the control. As a result, it was determined that apoptotic, necrotic, and autophagic pathways were activated as the molecular basis of the damage in the bone tissue, which was most affected by fluorine, and these genes were down-regulated and approached the control group with the addition of vitamin D. It was concluded that this is an important data to explain the molecular basis of the protective and therapeutic effect of vitamin D against fluorine toxicity.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity; NaF; Osteoblast; Vitamin D.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis
  • Fluorides / pharmacology
  • Fluorine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Osteoblasts
  • Sodium Fluoride* / toxicity
  • Vitamin D* / metabolism
  • Vitamin D* / pharmacology


  • Sodium Fluoride
  • Vitamin D
  • Fluorine
  • Fluorides