The Effect of Dietary Interventions on Hypertriglyceridemia: From Public Health to Molecular Nutrition Evidence

Nutrients. 2022 Mar 5;14(5):1104. doi: 10.3390/nu14051104.


Approximately 25-50% of the population worldwide exhibits serum triglycerides (TG) (≥150 mg/dL) which are associated with an increased level of highly atherogenic remnant-like particles, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and pancreatitis risk. High serum TG levels could be related to cardiovascular disease, which is the most prevalent cause of mortality in Western countries. The etiology of hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is multifactorial and can be classified as primary and secondary causes. Among the primary causes are genetic disorders. On the other hand, secondary causes of HTG comprise lifestyle factors, medical conditions, and drugs. Among lifestyle changes, adequate diets and nutrition are the initial steps to treat and prevent serum lipid alterations. Dietary intervention for HTG is recommended in order to modify the amount of macronutrients. Macronutrient distribution changes such as fat or protein, low-carbohydrate diets, and caloric restriction seem to be effective strategies in reducing TG levels. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet is the dietary pattern with the most consistent evidence for efficacy in HTG while the use of omega-3 supplements consumption is the dietary component with the highest number of randomized clinical trials (RCT) carried out with effective results on reducing TG. The aim of this review was to provide a better comprehension between human nutrition and lipid metabolism.

Keywords: clinical trial; dietary interventions; hypertriglyceridemia; molecular nutrition; triglycerides.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypertriglyceridemia*
  • Nutritional Status
  • Pancreatitis* / drug therapy
  • Public Health


  • Fatty Acids, Omega-3