Prediabetes Is Associated with Increased Prevalence of Sleep-Disordered Breathing

J Clin Med. 2022 Mar 4;11(5):1413. doi: 10.3390/jcm11051413.


Type 2 diabetes leads to severe nocturnal hypoxemia, with an increase in apnea events and daytime sleepiness. Hence, we assessed sleep breathing parameters in the prediabetes stage. A cross-sectional study conducted on 966 middle-aged subjects without known pulmonary disease (311 patients with prediabetes and 655 controls with normal glucose metabolism) was conducted. Prediabetes was defined by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and a nonattended overnight home sleep study was performed. Participants with prediabetes (n = 311) displayed a higher apnea−hypopnea index (AHI: 12.7 (6.1;24.3) vs. 9.5 (4.2;19.6) events/h, p < 0.001) and hypopnea index (HI: 8.4 (4.0;14.9) vs. 6.0 (2.7;12.6) events/h, p < 0.001) than controls, without differences in the apnea index. Altogether, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea was higher in subjects with prediabetes than in controls (78.1 vs. 69.9%, p = 0.007). Additionally, subjects with prediabetes presented impaired measurements of the median and minimum nocturnal oxygen saturation, the percentage of time spent with oxygen saturations below 90%, and the 4% oxygen desaturation index in comparison with individuals without prediabetes (p < 0.001 for all). After adjusting for age, sex, and the presence of obesity, HbA1c correlated with the HI in the entire population (r = 0.141, p < 0.001), and the presence of prediabetes was independently associated with the AHI (B = 2.20 (0.10 to 4.31), p = 0.040) as well as the HI (B = 1.87 (0.61 to 3.14), p = 0.004) in the multiple linear regression model. We conclude that prediabetes is an independent risk factor for an increased AHI after adjusting for age, sex, and obesity. The enhanced AHI is mainly associated with increments in the hypopnea events.

Keywords: apnea; glycated hemoglobin; hypopnea; obstructive sleep apnea; prediabetes.