Potential of the Compounds from Bixa orellana Purified Annatto Oil and Its Granules (Chronic®) against Dyslipidemia and Inflammatory Diseases: In Silico Studies with Geranylgeraniol and Tocotrienols

Molecules. 2022 Feb 28;27(5):1584. doi: 10.3390/molecules27051584.


Some significant compounds present in annatto are geranylgeraniol and tocotrienols. These compounds have beneficial effects against hyperlipidemia and chronic diseases, where oxidative stress and inflammation are present, but the exact mechanism of action of such activities is still a subject of research. This study aimed to evaluate possible mechanisms of action that could be underlying the activities of these molecules. For this, in silico approaches such as ligand topology (PASS and SEA servers) and molecular docking with the software GOLD were used. Additionally, we screened some pharmacokinetic and toxicological parameters using the servers PreADMET, SwissADME, and ProTox-II. The results corroborate the antidyslipidemia and anti-inflammatory activities of geranylgeraniol and tocotrienols. Notably, some new mechanisms of action were predicted to be potentially underlying the activities of these compounds, including inhibition of squalene monooxygenase, lanosterol synthase, and phospholipase A2. These results give new insight into new mechanisms of action involved in these molecules from annatto and Chronic®.

Keywords: Bixa orellana; geranylgeraniol; inflammatory process; oil; tocotrienol.

MeSH terms

  • Bixaceae
  • Carotenoids
  • Diterpenes
  • Dyslipidemias*
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Tocotrienols* / pharmacology


  • Diterpenes
  • Plant Extracts
  • Tocotrienols
  • Carotenoids
  • annatto
  • geranylgeraniol