Risk Assessment of Coronary Obstruction During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From Post-BASILICA Computed Tomography

JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2022 Mar 14;15(5):496-507. doi: 10.1016/j.jcin.2022.01.003.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of preprocedural computed tomography (CT)-based risk stratification of coronary obstruction during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on the basis of geometric measurements on postprocedural CT.

Background: Proper patient selection for additional procedures to prevent coronary obstruction during TAVR has not been adequately evaluated.

Methods: Pre- and postprocedural computed tomographic scans of 28 patients treated using bioprosthetic or native aortic scallop intentional laceration to prevent iatrogenic coronary artery obstruction (BASILICA) and TAVR were analyzed. Using the postprocedural computed tomographic images, threatened coronary obstruction (TCO) was defined as: 1) ostial obstruction (adherence of the transcatheter heart valve [THV] to the coronary ostium with leaflet extension above the ostium); and/or 2) sinus sequestration (THV adherence to the sinotubular junction [STJ] with leaflet extension above the STJ) and was substratified into complete and incomplete types.

Results: A total of 51 leaflets were evaluated (88% surgical tissue valves) after excluding leaflets not visible on CT (n = 5). On postprocedural CT, complete TCO was observed in 25.4% (13 of 51 leaflets). On preprocedural CT, leaflets were at high risk for complete TCO (incidence 53%) if the virtual THV-to-coronary distance (VTC) was <3.0 mm, or if the virtual THV-to-STJ distance (VTSTJ) was <1.0 mm with STJ height - leaflet length <0 mm (leaflet-STJ mismatch). Leaflets were at low risk (incidence 0%) if the VTC was ≥3 mm and VTSTJ was ≥3.0 mm or STJ height - leaflet length was ≥+2.0 mm. Of 28 leaflets treated using BASILICA, complete TCO was seen in 35.7% (n = 10), due to sinus sequestration (100%) with coexisting ostial obstruction (30%). Actual coronary events occurred in 7.1% (n = 2) because of leaflet prolapse, corresponding to an absolute risk reduction by BASILICA of 29% (P = 0.021).

Conclusions: Risk assessment of coronary obstruction after TAVR may improve with a multiparametric approach incorporating VTC, VTSTJ, and leaflet-STJ mismatch. BASILICA appeared to reduce actual coronary events even in leaflets with anticipated coronary obstruction.

Keywords: BASILICA; computed tomography; coronary obstruction; transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

MeSH terms

  • Aortic Valve / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve / surgery
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / diagnostic imaging
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / etiology
  • Aortic Valve Stenosis* / surgery
  • Bioprosthesis*
  • Heart Valve Prosthesis*
  • Humans
  • Prosthesis Design
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement* / adverse effects
  • Treatment Outcome