In Vitro Apixaban Removal By CytoSorb Whole Blood Adsorber: An Experimental Study

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2022 Jun;36(6):1636-1644. doi: 10.1053/j.jvca.2022.01.038. Epub 2022 Jan 31.


Objectives: The use of unopposed oral anticoagulants while undergoing cardiothoracic surgery is associated with severe bleeding and increased morbidity. The aim of this experimental study was to examine if the apixaban concentration in reconstituted blood could be reduced in an in vitro setup by the use of CytoSorb whole blood adsorber, and to study how this affected global coagulation assays.

Design and setting: An experimental study performed in a laboratory.

Participants: An in vitro setup with reconstituted whole blood.

Interventions: Reconstituted whole blood spiked with apixaban circulated in an in vitro circuit with the CytoSorb 300 mL device connected.

Measurements and main results: Blood samples were drawn at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes of adsorption. The apixaban concentration was measured at each time point. In addition, the global coagulation assays, thromboelastometry clotting time and thrombin generation, were performed, and the results were compared with baseline values obtained before spiking blood with apixaban. After 30 minutes of adsorption, the mean apixaban concentration was reduced from 414.3 (±69.1) ng/mL to 33 (±11.4) ng/mL. Thrombin generation showed maximum effect after 60 minutes, and the thromboelastometry clotting time was close to baseline values after 120 minutes.

Conclusions: In this in vitro study, apixaban concentrations were effectively reduced, and the clotting time and thrombin generation assays were normalized by the use of CytoSorb whole blood adsorber.

Keywords: CytoSorb; apixaban; extracorporeal blood purification; novel oral anticoagulants; reversal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anticoagulants
  • Blood Coagulation Tests / methods
  • Humans
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyridones*
  • Thrombin*


  • Anticoagulants
  • Pyrazoles
  • Pyridones
  • apixaban
  • Thrombin