Challenges and solutions of extracting value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products: a review

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022 Mar 11;1-23. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2049692. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Every year, huge amounts of fruit and vegetable by-products in the food processing factories are produced. These by-products have great potential to be used for different targets especially the extraction of value-added ingredients. The target of this study is to review the challenges of extraction of value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products on the industrial scale and to describe current trends in solving these problems. In addition, some strategies such as multi-component extraction as well as application of fermentation before or after the extraction process, and production of biofuel, organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. on final residues after extraction of value-added ingredients are discussed in this review paper. In fact, simultaneous extraction of different value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products can increase the extraction efficiency and reduce the cost of value-added ingredients as well as the final volume of these by-products. After extraction of value-added ingredients, the residues can be used to produce biofuels, or they can be used to produce organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. Therefore, the application of several appropriate strategies to treat the fruit and vegetable by-products can increase their application, protect the environment, and improve the food economy.

Keywords: Extraction of value-added ingredients; fruit and vegetable by-products; maximum usage of by-products; treatment of residues after extraction.