Contribution of health information system to child immunization services in Ethiopia: baseline study of 33 woredas

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2022 Mar 11;22(1):64. doi: 10.1186/s12911-022-01796-8.


Background: Monitoring progress using appropriate data, with a functional health information system (HIS), believed to be very crucial for success of immunization program. Baseline study was conducted to assess, immunization service coverage, HIS performance status, and their relationships.

Methods: A linked facility and population-based survey was conducted concurrently from September 21 to October 15, 2020. A total of 3016 households were reached to interview mothers having children aged 12-23 months in the 33 woredas. Overall 81 health posts, 71 health centers, and 15 hospitals were selected for the facility survey. The study used modified Performance of Routine Information System Management (PRISM) tools for the facility survey and a structured questionnaire for the household survey. Using STATA 14.0 software, mixed effect modeling was employed to control the effect of clustering and potential confounders.

Results: The proportion of fully immunized children was 58%. Coverages of measles (at least one dose) and penta3 immunization (received all 3 doses of DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine) were 86%, and 85% respectively. About 27% of mothers had missed their child immunization card mainly due to misplacing or lost. Except 'source document completeness' (85%) and 'use of data for planning and target setting' (84%), other data quality and use indicators like 'data accuracy' (63%), 'data use for performance review and evidence-based decision making' (50%), and 'data use to produce analytical reports' (31%) show low performance. The odds of fully immunized children is 37% lower in Muslims compared with Orthodox Christians (AOR, 0.63; 95%CI: 0.46, 0.88), higher by 42% with father's secondary education compared with no education (AOR, 1.42; 95%CI: 1.05, 1.92), and highest wealth quintile compared with lowest quintile (AOR, 2.49; 95%CI: 1.54, 4.03). For each additional score of HIS infrastructure availability, the odds of fully immunized children increased by 22% (AOR:1.22; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.44).

Conclusions: Child immunization coverages are promising However, the current HIS performance is suboptimal. Both service user and HIS related factors are important for immunization service uptake. Documenting required information and advising mothers to keep immunization cards by health workers, and working to have functional HIS are recommended.

Keywords: Ethiopia; Health information system; Immunization coverages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Ethiopia
  • Female
  • Health Information Systems*
  • Humans
  • Immunization
  • Immunization Programs
  • Infant
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccination Coverage