Introduction: Treatment with glucocorticoids in children with nephrotic syndrome can be the cause of developmental disorders of the masticatory organ and bone or teeth abnormalities. The aim was to assess the frequency and type of dental abnormalities and the correlation of their occurrence with a dosage of glucocorticoids and treatment time in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.
Methods: The study group consisted of 31 patients aged 5 to 17 diagnosed with idiopathic steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome and 33 overall healthy children. The studies included clinical evaluation of dentition, radiologic diagnostics, and statistical analysis.
Results: In the study group, 77.4% of patients were diagnosed with abnormalities in dental development. Tooth number disorders, presence of persistent deciduous teeth and impacted teeth, abnormal crown or root shape, developmental defects of enamel, pulp stones, and bone structure disorders were identified. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the average treatment time of glucocorticoids in patients without and with tooth developmental abnormalities.
Conclusions: Long-term use of glucocorticoids in children with nephrotic syndrome promotes the occurrence of developmental abnormalities of the teeth, calcification of the pulp, and disorders of bone tissue metabolism. For this reason, patients with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome should be under the constant care of a dentist.
Keywords: Developmental defects of enamel; Glucocorticoids; Nephrotic syndrome; Oral cavity.
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