Interaction of lncRNA MIR100HG with hnRNPA2B1 facilitates m6A-dependent stabilization of TCF7L2 mRNA and colorectal cancer progression

Mol Cancer. 2022 Mar 12;21(1):74. doi: 10.1186/s12943-022-01555-3.


Background: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process linked to metastasis and drug resistance with non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) playing pivotal roles. We previously showed that miR-100 and miR-125b, embedded within the third intron of the ncRNA host gene MIR100HG, confer resistance to cetuximab, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody, in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, whether the MIR100HG transcript itself has a role in cetuximab resistance or EMT is unknown.

Methods: The correlation between MIR100HG and EMT was analyzed by curating public CRC data repositories. The biological roles of MIR100HG in EMT, metastasis and cetuximab resistance in CRC were determined both in vitro and in vivo. The expression patterns of MIR100HG, hnRNPA2B1 and TCF7L2 in CRC specimens from patients who progressed on cetuximab and patients with metastatic disease were analyzed by RNAscope and immunohistochemical staining.

Results: The expression of MIR100HG was strongly correlated with EMT markers and acted as a positive regulator of EMT. MIR100HG sustained cetuximab resistance and facilitated invasion and metastasis in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo. hnRNPA2B1 was identified as a binding partner of MIR100HG. Mechanistically, MIR100HG maintained mRNA stability of TCF7L2, a major transcriptional coactivator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, by interacting with hnRNPA2B1. hnRNPA2B1 recognized the N6-methyladenosine (m6A) site of TCF7L2 mRNA in the presence of MIR100HG. TCF7L2, in turn, activated MIR100HG transcription, forming a feed forward regulatory loop. The MIR100HG/hnRNPA2B1/TCF7L2 axis was augmented in specimens from CRC patients who either developed local or distant metastasis or had disease progression that was associated with cetuximab resistance.

Conclusions: MIR100HG and hnRNPA2B1 interact to control the transcriptional activity of Wnt signaling in CRC via regulation of TCF7L2 mRNA stability. Our findings identified MIR100HG as a potent EMT inducer in CRC that may contribute to cetuximab resistance and metastasis by activation of a MIR100HG/hnRNPA2B1/TCF7L2 feedback loop.

Keywords: CRC; Cetuximab resistance; EMT; MIR100HG; Metastasis; N6-methyladenosine (m6A); TCF7L2; Wnt/β-catenin signaling; hnRNPA2B1.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / genetics
  • Cetuximab / genetics
  • Cetuximab / metabolism
  • Colorectal Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B* / genetics
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs* / genetics
  • MicroRNAs* / metabolism
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding* / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein / genetics
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein / metabolism
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway / genetics


  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • MicroRNAs
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA, Messenger
  • TCF7L2 protein, human
  • Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein
  • Cetuximab