Efficacy of EPA-registered disinfectants against two human norovirus surrogates and Clostridioides difficile endospores

J Appl Microbiol. 2022 Jun;132(6):4289-4299. doi: 10.1111/jam.15524. Epub 2022 Mar 17.


Aims: To determine the efficacy of a panel of nine EPA-registered disinfectants against two human norovirus (HuNoV) surrogates (feline calicivirus [FCV] and Tulane virus [TuV]) and Clostridioides difficile endospores.

Methods and results: Nine EPA-registered products, five of which contained H2 O2 as active ingredient, were tested against infectious FCV, TuV and C. difficile endospores using two ASTM methods, a suspension and carrier test. Efficacy claims against FCV were confirmed for 8 of 9 products. The most efficacious product containing H2 O2 as ingredient achieved a >5.1 log reduction of FCV and >3.1 log reduction of TuV after 5 min, and >6.0 log reduction of C. difficile endospores after 10 min. Of the five products containing H2 O2 , no strong correlation (R2 = 0.25, p = 0.03) was observed between disinfection efficacy and H2 O2 concentration. Addition of 0.025% ferrous sulphate to 1% H2 O2 solution improved efficacy against FCV, TuV and C. difficile.

Conclusion: Disinfectants containing H2 O2 are the most efficacious disinfection products against FCV, TuV and C. difficile endospores. Product formulation, rather than the concentration of H2 O2 in a product, impacts the efficacy of a disinfection product.

Significance and impact of study: H2 O2 -based disinfectants are efficacious against surrogate viruses for HuNoV and C. difficile endospores.

Keywords: Clostridioides difficile endospores; Tulane virus; disinfection efficacy; feline calicivirus; human norovirus surrogate; hydrogen peroxide.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calicivirus, Feline*
  • Cats
  • Clostridioides
  • Clostridioides difficile*
  • Disinfectants* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Norovirus*
  • Spores, Bacterial


  • Disinfectants