Prevalence and predictors of uncontrolled hypertension, diabetes, and obesity among adults with HIV in northern Tanzania

Glob Public Health. 2022 Dec;17(12):3747-3759. doi: 10.1080/17441692.2022.2049344. Epub 2022 Mar 13.


HIV is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but there has been less study of cardiovascular comorbidities among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In a cross-sectional observational study, Tanzanian adults presenting for outpatient HIV care completed a questionnaire and underwent weight, height, blood pressure, and blood glucose measurement. Hypertension was defined by blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or self-reported hypertension. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg. Diabetes was defined by fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl, random glucose ≥200 mg/dl, or self-reported diabetes. Obesity was defined by body mass index ≥30 kg/m2. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of uncontrolled hypertension. Among 500 participants, 173 (34.6%) had hypertension, 21 (4.2%) had diabetes, and 99 (19.8%) were obese. Of those with hypertension, 116 (67.1%) were unaware of their hypertension, and 155 (89.6%) had uncontrolled hypertension. In multivariate analysis, uncontrolled hypertension was associated with older age (OR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10, p < 0.001) and higher body mass index (OR 1.17, 95% CI: 1.11-1.22, p < 0.001). Interventions are needed to improve screening and treatment for hypertension, diabetes, and obesity among Tanzanians with HIV.

Keywords: HIV; Sub-Saharan Africa; diabetes mellitus; hypertension; obesity.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Glucose
  • HIV Infections* / complications
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Tanzania / epidemiology


  • Glucose