Urinary surgery in the horse may be challenging. More straightforward procedures, such as urinary bladder or urachal defects, do not usually require specialized equipment or imaging, although laboratory work is helpful. Congenital or acquired conditions of the ureters or kidneys may necessitate advanced diagnostic work-ups including advanced imaging /or and minimally invasive procedures. Some surgery of the lower urinary tract is done in the sedated, standing adult horse. Surgery involving the kidney typically requires general anesthesia. Laparoscopy and associated tools are frequently used. Although many of the surgical procedures discussed are quite involved, they are becoming more commonplace.
Keywords: Ectopic ureter; Nephrectomy; Urethra; Uroabdomen; Urolithiasis.
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