Robust design of a green-responsive closed-loop supply chain network for the ventilator device

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Jul;29(35):53598-53618. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-19105-1. Epub 2022 Mar 14.


This study aims to investigate the closed-loop supply chain network design problem considering the environmental and responsiveness features. For this purpose, a multi-objective mathematical model is suggested that minimizes the carbon emissions and the total costs and maximizes the responsiveness of the system. Due to the dynamic space of the business environment, uncertainty is an integral part of the supply chain problem. Therefore, this research applies the robust possibilistic programming method to cope with uncertainty. Afterwards, since the research problem has a high level of the complexity, a hybrid solution approach based on a heuristic method and the meta-goal programming method is developed to solve the research problem in a reasonable time. Then, due to the importance of the ventilator device during the recent pandemic (COVID-19), this study considers this product as a case study. The main contribution of the current study is to design a green-responsive closed-loop supply chain network under uncertainty using a multi-objective robust possibilistic programming model, for the first time in the literature, especially in the medical devices industry. On the other side, the other contribution of this study is to develop an efficient hybrid solution method. The achieved results demonstrate the efficiency of the offered model and the developed hybrid method. Eventually, by carrying out sensitivity analysis, the impact of some of the critical parameters on the model is investigated. Based on the obtained results, an increase in the demand sizes leads to increasing the environmental damages and the total costs while reducing the responsiveness level. On the other side, an increase in the rate of return leads to an increase in all of the objective functions. Also, the achieved results show that when the capacity parameter is increased, the total costs are decreased, but the responsiveness and environmental impacts are increased.

Keywords: Green supply chain; Responsive supply chain; Robust possibilistic programming; Supply chain management.

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19*
  • Environment
  • Models, Theoretical
  • Uncertainty
  • Ventilators, Mechanical