Findings and prognostic indicators of outcomes for queens with pyometra treated surgically in a nonspecialized hospital setting

J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2022 May 21;260(S2):S42-S48. doi: 10.2460/javma.20.12.0712.


Objective: To describe findings, determine the rate of survival to hospital discharge, and identify prognostic indicators of poor outcomes for female cats (queens) with pyometra treated with ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in a nonspecialized setting.

Animals: 134 queens with pyometra diagnosed between January 1, 2017, and December 31, 2019.

Procedures: The medical records were retrospectively searched and data including patient history, clinical signs, blood work results, and outcome (survival to hospital discharge, length of hospitalization, and uterine rupture) were collected from medical records. Logistic regression models were used to assess potential predictors of outcomes.

Results: Dehydration (69% [83/121]) and absolute neutrophilia (83% [52/63]) were commonly reported. The rate of survival to hospital discharge was 100% (126/126; 95% CI, 97% to 100%) for queens treated with OHE; 33% (41/126) were hospitalized ≥ 2 nights, and 4% (5/120) had uterine rupture. Queens with abnormal serum ionized calcium concentration or signs of depressed mentation had greater odds (OR of 4.64 and 2.26, respectively) of ≥ 2 nights' hospitalization. Queens with high rectal temperature, closed pyometra, or heart murmur had greater odds (OR of 35.66, 17.37, or 16.06, respectively) of uterine rupture.

Clinical relevance: Our findings indicated that OHE for pyometra in queens was highly successful even when performed in a nonspecialty hospital with high-quality basic supportive care, and we believe most general practitioners who offer OHE could expect to see similar outcomes. With more general-practice veterinarians comfortable treating pyometra in their clinics, OHE for pyometra will be available to more pets, ultimately saving more lives.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Hospitals
  • Pregnancy
  • Prognosis
  • Pyometra* / surgery
  • Pyometra* / veterinary
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Uterine Rupture* / veterinary