Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing on contribution to self-care, self-efficacy, and preparedness in caregivers of patients with heart failure: a secondary outcome analysis of the MOTIVATE-HF randomized controlled trial

Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2022 Nov 23;21(8):801-811. doi: 10.1093/eurjcn/zvac013.


Aims: Caregiver characteristics and behaviours are associated with patients' and caregivers' outcomes. However, there is scarce evidence on interventions aimed at improving caregiver contribution (CC) to patient self-care, caregiver self-efficacy, and caregiver preparedness in heart failure (HF). This study aims to evaluate the effect of Motivational Interviewing (MI) on CC to patient self-care, caregiver self-efficacy, and caregiver preparedness in HF.

Methods and results: This is a secondary outcome analysis of MOTIVATE-HF randomized controlled trial. Caregivers of patients with HF were randomized into three arms: Arm 1 (MI for patients), Arm 2 (MI for patients and caregivers), and Arm 3 (standard care). The intervention consisted of one MI session plus three telephone contacts. Data were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. A total of 510 patient and caregiver (median age 54 years, 76% females) dyads were enrolled, 235 caregivers and 238 patients completed the study until 12 months. Caregiver contribution to self-care maintenance and management and caregiver preparedness significantly improved over time, but without significant differences among the three arms. At 9 months, caregiver self-efficacy improved more in Arm 2 than Arm 3 [difference: 8.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) (3.13; 13.59), P = 0.001]. This improvement remained significant also at linear mixed model [β^ = 1.39, 95% CI (0.02; 2.75), P = 0.046].

Conclusion: Motivational Interviewing did not improve CC to patient self-care and caregiver preparedness. However, it increased caregiver self-efficacy, which is known to be a powerful mediator of CC to self-care.

Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02894502.

Keywords: Caregivers; Heart failure; Motivational Interviewing; Preparedness; Self-care; Self-efficacy.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Caregivers
  • Female
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivational Interviewing* / methods
  • Self Care / methods
  • Self Efficacy

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT02894502