Lung flukes of the genus Paragonimus: ancient and re-emerging pathogens

Parasitology. 2022 Sep;149(10):1286-1295. doi: 10.1017/S0031182022000300. Epub 2022 Mar 16.


The title of this article refers to Table 1 in Zhou (2022, Infectious diseases of poverty: progress achieved during the decade gone and perspectives for the future. Infectious Diseases of Poverty 11, 1), in which it is indicated that Paragonimus species, like many other foodborne trematodes, are ancient pathogens that are also re-emerging to cause disease in modern times. This article provides a general overview of Paragonimus species and the disease they cause. This is followed by comments on several specific topics of current interest: taxonomy and distribution of members of the genus; details of the life cycle; global and regional prevalence of paragonimiasis; genomics of lung flukes and possible effects of global environmental change. Unresolved questions relating to these topics are discussed and gaps in knowledge identified.

Keywords: Evolution; Paragonimus; foodborne trematodes; genomics; life cycle; lung flukes; molecular taxonomy; paragonimiasis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Lung
  • Paragonimiasis* / epidemiology
  • Paragonimus* / genetics
  • Prevalence