Lessons Learned from the Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine Introduction in India That Supported the Introduction of Ivermectin-Diethylcarbamazine-Albendazole for Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Mar 15;106(5_Suppl):48-55. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-1168. Print 2022 May 11.


We used the introduction of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in India as an example to understand more fully the process of introducing any new clinical product in India. We discuss the key decision-making points as well as the many activities involved in introducing a new clinical product in India's public health program. We write from our experience in supporting the government of India to introduce new products successfully-namely, vaccines-to India's health system. In India, the process begins with identifying the public health problem (e.g., an outbreak of JE), deciding to take action, prioritizing where action is needed, securing a supply and price of the intervention (the vaccine; in this case, the live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine), and determining how to ensure effective rollout of the intervention (the vaccination program). Reflecting on the experience of the JE vaccination program helped to inform the introduction of the triple-drug therapy of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine, and albendazole in India as a new treatment protocol for lymphatic filariasis.

MeSH terms

  • Albendazole / therapeutic use
  • Diethylcarbamazine / therapeutic use
  • Elephantiasis, Filarial* / drug therapy
  • Elephantiasis, Filarial* / epidemiology
  • Elephantiasis, Filarial* / prevention & control
  • Encephalitis, Japanese* / drug therapy
  • Encephalitis, Japanese* / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis, Japanese* / prevention & control
  • Filaricides* / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Ivermectin / therapeutic use
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines*


  • Diethylcarbamazine
  • Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines
  • Albendazole
  • Ivermectin
  • Filaricides