50 patients with osteoarthritis were randomly assigned to two groups and treated over a period of 6 weeks with vitamin E-capsules (daily dose 400 I.E. d-alpha-tocopherylacetate) or an identical placebo preparation. The results of this double-blind controlled clinical trial showed that vitamin E was superior to placebo with respect to the relief of pain (pain at rest, pain during movement, pressure-induced pain) and the necessity of additional analgetic treatment (p less than 0.05 to p less than 0.01). Improvement of mobility was better in the group treated with vitamin E. However, this result was not statistically significant. The profile and the intensity of adverse reactions in both the vitamin E and placebo group was practically identical. This clinical study shows antiphlogistic efficacy of vitamin E in patients with osteoarthritis. In view of the possibility to reduce standard antiphlogistic, analgetic therapy together with the very good tolerance this result may be very important for the treatment of chronic rheumatic inflammatory disease.