Pacemaker-associated superior vena cava syndrome: Role of contrast echocardiography

Echocardiography. 2022 Apr;39(4):647-653. doi: 10.1111/echo.15342. Epub 2022 Mar 16.


Pacemaker-associated superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is increasingly recognized as a nonmalignant type of SVC syndrome. Computed tomographic (CT) angiography is the first choice of imaging for diagnosis but in some cases there is discrepancy between the clinical findings and CT images. In this report we present the role of contrast study with transesophageal echocardiography in a patient with suspicion of SVC syndrome but inconclusive CT findings.

Keywords: contrast study; echocardiography; superior vena cava.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Echocardiography
  • Echocardiography, Transesophageal
  • Humans
  • Pacemaker, Artificial* / adverse effects
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome* / diagnostic imaging
  • Superior Vena Cava Syndrome* / etiology
  • Vena Cava, Superior / diagnostic imaging