Reported Cases of End-Stage Kidney Disease - United States, 2000-2019

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022 Mar 18;71(11):412-415. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm7111a3.


End-stage kidney disease (ESKD) (kidney failure requiring dialysis or transplantation) is a costly and disabling condition that often results in premature death (1). During 2019, Medicare fee-for-service expenditures for ESKD were $37.3 billion, accounting for approximately 7% of Medicare paid claims costs (1). Diabetes and hypertension remain the leading causes of ESKD, accounting for 47% and 29%, respectively, of patients who began ESKD treatment in 2019 (1). Compared with White persons, Black, Hispanic, and American Indian or Alaska Native persons are more likely to develop ESKD (1,2) and to have diagnosed diabetes (3). After declining for more than a decade, the incidence rate of ESKD with diabetes reported as the primary cause (ESKD from diabetes) has leveled off since 2010 (1,4). Further, after increasing for many years, the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes has also leveled off (4). Although these flattening trends in rates are important from a population perspective, the trend in the number of ESKD cases is important from a health systems resources perspective. Using United States Renal Data System (USRDS) 2000-2019 data, CDC examined trends in the number of incident and prevalent ESKD cases by demographic characteristics and by primary cause of ESKD. During 2000-2019, the number of incident ESKD cases increased by 41.8%, and the number of prevalent ESKD cases increased by 118.7%. Higher percentage changes in both incident and prevalent ESKD cases were among Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander persons and among cases with hypertension or diabetes as the primary cause. Interventions to improve care and better manage ESKD risk factors among persons with diabetes and hypertension, along with increased use of therapeutic agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), and sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors shown to have kidney-protective benefits (5,6) might slow the increase and eventually reverse the trend in incident ESKD cases.

Publication types

  • Technical Report

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / ethnology
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Public Health
  • Risk Factors
  • United States / epidemiology