Background: Nonenhancing glioma typically have a favorable outcome, but approximately 19-44% have a highly aggressive course due to a glioblastoma genetic profile. The aim of this retrospective study is to use physiological MRI parameters of both perfusion and diffusion to distinguish the molecular profiles of glioma without enhancement at presentation.
Methods: Ninety-nine patients with nonenhancing glioma were included, in whom molecular status (including 1p/19q codeletion status and IDH mutation) and preoperative MRI (T2w/FLAIR, dynamic susceptibility-weighted, and diffusion-weighted imaging) were available. Tumors were segmented semiautomatically using ITK-SNAP to derive whole tumor histograms of relative Cerebral Blood Volume (rCBV) and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC). Tumors were divided into three clinically relevant molecular profiles: IDH mutation (IDHmt) with (n = 40) or without (n = 41) 1p/19q codeletion, and (n = 18) IDH-wildtype (IDHwt). ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, and Chi-Square analyses were performed using SPSS.
Results: rCBV (mean, median, 75th and 85th percentile) and ADC (mean, median, 15th and 25th percentile) showed significant differences across molecular profiles (P < .01). Posthoc analyses revealed that IDHwt and IDHmt 1p/19q codeleted tumors showed significantly higher rCBV compared to IDHmt 1p/19q intact tumors: mean rCBV (mean, SD) 1.46 (0.59) and 1.35 (0.39) versus 1.08 (0.31), P < .05. Also, IDHwt tumors showed significantly lower ADC compared to IDHmt 1p/19q codeleted and IDHmt 1p/19q intact tumors: mean ADC (mean, SD) 1.13 (0.23) versus 1.27 (0.15) and 1.45 (0.20), P < .001).
Conclusions: A combination of low ADC and high rCBV, reflecting high cellularity and high perfusion respectively, separates IDHwt from in particular IDHmt 1p/19q intact glioma.
Keywords: ADC; MRI; molecular profile; nonenhancing glioma; rCBV.
© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press, the Society for Neuro-Oncology and the European Association of Neuro-Oncology.