One-Year Outcomes and Factors Associated With Mortality Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in Northern Tanzania

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2022 Apr;15(4):e008528. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.121.008528. Epub 2022 Mar 18.


Background: Little is known about long-term outcomes and uptake of secondary preventative therapies following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: Consecutive patients presenting with AMI (as defined by the Fourth Universal Definition of AMI Criteria) to a northern Tanzanian referral hospital were enrolled in this prospective observational study. Follow-up surveys assessing mortality, medication use, and rehospitalization were administered at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months following initial presentation, by telephone or in person. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify baseline clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with one-year mortality.

Results: Of 152 enrolled patients with AMI, 5 were lost to one-year follow-up (96.7% retention rate). Mortality rates were 34.9% (53 of 152 participants) during the initial hospitalization, 48.7% (73 of 150 patients) at 3 months, 52.7% (78 of 148 patients) at 6 months, 55.4% (82 of 148 patients) at 9 months, and 59.9% (88 of 147 patients) at one year. Of 59 patients surviving to one-year follow-up, 43 (72.9%) reported persistent anginal symptoms, 5 (8.5%) were taking an antiplatelet, 8 (13.6%) were taking an antihypertensive, 30 (50.8%) had been rehospitalized, and 7 (11.9%) had ever undergone cardiac catheterization. On multivariate analysis, one-year mortality was associated with lack of secondary education (odds ratio, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.58]; P=0.001), lower body mass index (odds ratio, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.82-0.98]; P=0.015), and higher initial troponin (odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.05-1.80]; P=0.052).

Conclusions: In northern Tanzania, AMI is associated with high all-cause one-year mortality and use of evidence-based secondary preventative therapies among AMI survivors is low. Interventions are needed to improve AMI care and outcomes.

Keywords: Africa south of the Sahara; Tanzania; mortality; secondary prevention.

Publication types

  • Observational Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction* / diagnosis
  • Myocardial Infarction* / therapy
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Survivors
  • Tanzania / epidemiology