Background and objectives: Although patient-reported symptoms often precede acute presentations of cardiovascular disease, patients with nondialysis-requiring CKD are less likely to have typical symptoms of atherosclerotic disease when presenting with acute myocardial infarction. However, the associations between typical atherosclerotic symptoms and subsequent risk of myocardial infarction are unknown in ambulatory patients with CKD.
Design, setting, participants, & measurements: To determine whether typical atherosclerotic symptoms are associated with risk for subsequent myocardial infarction in people with CKD, we examined participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Chest pain, shortness of breath, and inability to climb stairs were evaluated annually using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Instrument. Associations between categorical time-updated symptoms and physician-adjudicated incident myocardial infarction were assessed using Cox regression models.
Results: Among 3910 participants (mean age of 58±11 years; mean eGFR =44±15 ml/min per 1.73 m2), there were 476 incident myocardial infarctions over a median follow-up period of 10.4 years (interquartile range, 5.36-12.6 years). Median time from symptom assessment to incident myocardial infarction was 213 days (interquartile range, 111-333 days). Compared with no symptoms, mild, and moderate or worse, symptoms of chest pain (hazard ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.67; and hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.27 to 2.27, respectively) and shortness of breath (hazard ratio, 1.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.70; and hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.05 to 1.69, respectively) were significantly associated with greater risks for subsequent myocardial infarction. Participants reporting mild and severe limitations in climbing stairs (versus no limitation) had significantly higher adjusted risk of myocardial infarction (hazard ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.10 to 1.89; and hazard ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.44 to 2.49, respectively).
Conclusions: In a large ambulatory cohort of adults with CKD, symptoms of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease were strongly associated with a higher risk for subsequent myocardial infarction.
Podcast: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2022_03_17_CJN12080921.mp3.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; myocardial infarction; patient reported outcome measures.
Copyright © 2022 by the American Society of Nephrology.