Aim: Identification of blood-brain barrier (BBB) uptake transporters is a major challenge in the research and development of central nervous system (CNS) drugs. However, conventional methods that consider known drug uptake characteristics have failed at identifying the responsible transporter molecule. The present study aimed at identifying aripiprazole uptake transporters in BBB model hCMEC/D3 cells using a knockdown screening study targeting various transporters, including uncharacterized ones.
Methods: We evaluated the effect of 214 types of siRNA targeting transporters on the uptake of aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic drug, in hCMEC/D3 cells. Aripiprazole uptake was determined using Xenopus oocytes expressing the candidate genes extracted from the siRNA screening assay.
Results: The estimated unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain) of aripiprazole was estimated as 0.67 in wild-type mice and 1.94 in abcb1a/1b/abcg2 knockout mice, suggesting the involvement of both uptake and efflux transporters in BBB permeation. According to siRNA knockdown screening studies, organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2) and long-chain fatty acid transporter 1 (FATP1) were identified as candidate genes. The uptake of aripiprazole by hCMEC/D3 cells was decreased by OCTN2 inhibitors, but not by FATP1 inhibitors. A partially increased uptake of aripiprazole was observed in OCTN2-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Finally, to evaluate transporter-mediated BBB permeation of drugs, the reported and estimated Kp,uu,brain values were summarized.
Conclusions: A knockdown screening study in combination with Kp,uu,brain values showed that aripiprazole was a potential substrate of OCTN2. The technique described in this study can be applied to identifying novel BBB transporters for CNS drugs.
Keywords: aripiprazole; blood-brain barrier; distribution; screening; transporter.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.