Impact of gestational diabetes and other maternal factors on neonatal body composition in the first week of life: a case-control study

Ginekol Pol. 2023;94(2):119-128. doi: 10.5603/GP.a2021.0249. Epub 2022 Mar 22.


Objectives: Newborns of diabetic mothers are at increased risk of abnormal nutritional status at birth, thus developing metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric measurements and body composition of newborns born to mothers with gestational diabetes in comparison to newborns born to mothers with normal glucose tolerance in pregnancy, in the first week of their life. Maternal factors affecting the gestational period were also evaluated.

Material and methods: The study included 70 participants: neonates born to mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) and neonates born to healthy mothers (non-GDM). A set of statistical methods (e.g., ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test, regression, cluster analysis) was used to compare data between the study groups and to find their association with maternal factors.

Results: Our approach resulted in statistically significant classification (p < 0.05) by maternal history of hypothyroidism, weight gain during pregnancy and diagnosis of GDM. Newborns of mothers diagnosed with both GDM and hypothyroidism had lower birth weight and fat mass than newborns of mothers without GDM nor hypothyroidism (p < 0.05), however this finding might be associated with high incidence of excessive gestational weight gain among healthy mothers. No differences in body composition were found between the study groups on account of maternal GDM only (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Thus, well-controlled gestational diabetes mellitus as an individual factor does not significantly affect neonatal anthropometric measurements and body composition.

Keywords: bioelectrical impedance; body composition; gestational diabetes; hypothyroidism; newborn.

MeSH terms

  • Birth Weight
  • Body Composition
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational* / diagnosis
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pregnancy
  • Weight Gain