Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) are tethered to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane where they function as key regulators of a plethora of biological processes in eukaryotes. Self-incompatibility (SI) plays a pivotal role regulating fertilization in higher plants through recognition and rejection of "self" pollen. Here, we used Arabidopsis thaliana lines that were engineered to be self-incompatible by expression of Papaver rhoeas SI determinants for an SI suppressor screen. We identify HLD1/AtPGAP1, an ortholog of the human GPI-inositol deacylase PGAP1, as a critical component required for the SI response. Besides a delay in flowering time, no developmental defects were observed in HLD1/AtPGAP1 knockout plants, but SI was completely abolished. We demonstrate that HLD1/AtPGAP1 functions as a GPI-inositol deacylase and that this GPI-remodeling activity is essential for SI. Using GFP-SKU5 as a representative GPI-AP, we show that the HLD1/AtPGAP1 mutation does not affect GPI-AP production and targeting but affects their cleavage and release from membranes in vivo. Our data not only implicate GPI-APs in SI, providing new directions to investigate SI mechanisms, but also identify a key functional role for GPI-AP remodeling by inositol deacylation in planta.
Keywords: Arabidopsis; AtPGAP1; GPI-AP remodeling; GPI-inositol deacylase; HLD1; Papaver; pollen rejection; programmed cell death; self-incompatibility.
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