The impact of cystocele repair on urge symptoms in women with pelvic organ prolapse

Ginekol Pol. 2022 Mar 24. doi: 10.5603/GP.a2022.0008. Online ahead of print.


Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of cystocele repair on urinary urge symptoms and to determine the likelihood that urge symptoms are caused by cystocele and therefore cured by cystocele repair. The secondary aim was to assess the impact of baseline cystocele stage POP on the improvement of urge symptoms following surgical treatment of POP.

Material and methods: A total of 321 female patients with cystocele stages II, III or IV (POP), who underwent repair surgery for pelvic organ prolapse, were included. A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the presence of urge symptoms in patients with cystocele and to evaluate how many patients were cured from urge symptoms by the cystocele repair. Postoperative data were obtained by interview during a follow-up examination six weeks after surgery.

Results: Preoperatively, 52.02% of all patients diagnosed with cystocele stages II, III or IV POP experienced urge symptoms. Urge symptoms were cured in 88.62% of patients with cystocele stages II after POP repair (p < 0.005). 88.60% of patients with cystocele stage II POP and 88.68% of patients with cystocele stages III to IV POP reported improvement in urge symptoms (p < 0.005). Despite cystocele repair, 11.4% of patients with preoperative cystocele stage II POP and 11.32% with preoperative cystocele stages III and IV POP reported persistent urge symptoms. 5.84% of the study group who showed no urge symptoms preoperatively, experienced de novo urge symptoms after following surgery (p < 0.005).

Conclusions: Cystocele repair cured urge symptoms in the majority of patients. Therefore, repair of bladder prolapse may help to differentiate urge symptoms from other urinary tract dysfunctions and assist in determining a proper diagnosis and treatment. However, the severity of POP had no significant influence on the improvement in urge symptoms following cystocele repair. Risk of de novo urge symptoms after anatomical repair still needs to be explored.

Keywords: cystocele; overactive bladder; pelvic organ prolapse; urge symptoms; urinary incontinence; urinary urgency.