Interrogating the Genomic Landscape of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma: A Potential for Patient Benefit

Cancers (Basel). 2022 Mar 18;14(6):1561. doi: 10.3390/cancers14061561.


Uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS) is a rare and aggressive gynaecological malignancy. Surgical removal and chemotherapy are commonly used to treat uLMS, but recurrence rates are high. Over the last few decades, clarification of the genomic landscape of uLMS has revealed a number of recurring mutations, including TP53, RB1, ATRX, PTEN, and MED12. Such genomic aberrations are difficult to target therapeutically or are actively targeted in other malignancies, and their potential as targets for the treatment of uLMS remains largely unexplored. Recent identification of deficiencies in homologous recombination in a minority of these tumours, however, has provided a rationale for investigation of PARP inhibitors in this sub-set. Here, we review these mutations and the evidence for therapeutic avenues that may be applied in uLMS. We also provide a comprehensive background on diagnosis and current therapeutic strategies as well as reviewing preclinical models of uLMS, which may be employed not only in testing emerging therapies but also in understanding this challenging and deadly disease.

Keywords: clinical trials; gynaecological cancer; preclinical models; rare cancer; sarcoma; targeted therapy; uterine leiomyosarcoma.

Publication types

  • Review