The influence of risk factors on CHD and all-cause mortality rates in 35- to 57-year-old men is examined by means of data on 325,348 white men who were screened for the MRFIT. This large data set permits an unusually detailed analysis of factors associated with the 6968 deaths, including 2426 ascribed to CHD, that were detected in the Social Security Administration data set during 6 years of follow-up. Simple cross classification of the data confirms the independent effect of serum cholesterol concentration, diastolic blood pressure, and cigarette smoking as risk factors for CHD and all-cause mortality rates. A distinct escalation of risk is noted for combinations of these risk factors. The strength of the association of each of the risk factors with CHD and all-cause mortality rates diminished with increasing age, although the number of excess deaths attributable to the risk factors increased because of the higher death rates in older men. Comparison of these findings with those observed in the five populations studied in the Pooling Project revealed an overall similarity in the risk relationships. It is estimated that elimination of these risk factors has the potential for reducing the CHD mortality rate by two thirds in 35- to 45-year old men, and by one half in 46- to 57-year-old men.