KMT2A (Lysine methyltransferase 2A) is a member of the epigenetic machinery, encoding a lysine methyltransferase responsible for the transcriptional activation through lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4) methylation. KMT2A has a crucial role in gene expression, thus it is associated to pathological conditions when found mutated. KMT2A germinal mutations are associated to Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome and also in patients with initial clinical diagnosis of several other chromatinopathies (i.e., Coffin-Siris syndromes, Kabuki syndrome, Cornelia De Lange syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome), sharing an overlapping phenotype. On the other hand, KMT2A somatic mutations have been reported in several tumors, mainly blood malignancies. Due to its evolutionary conservation, the role of KMT2A in embryonic development, hematopoiesis and neurodevelopment has been explored in different animal models, and in recent decades, epigenetic treatments for disorders linked to KMT2A dysfunction have been extensively investigated. To note, pharmaceutical compounds acting on tumors characterized by KMT2A mutations have been formulated, and even nutritional interventions for chromatinopathies have become the object of study due to the role of microbiota in epigenetic regulation.
Keywords: KMT2A; chromatinopathies; epigenetics; tumors.