Urethral Bulking in the Treatment of Stress and Mixed Female Urinary Incontinence: Results from a Multicenter Cohort and Predictors of Clinical Outcomes

J Clin Med. 2022 Mar 12;11(6):1569. doi: 10.3390/jcm11061569.


The aim of the present study is to analyze the outcomes of urethral bulking in the treatment of non-neurogenic female stress and mixed urinary incontinence and to assess predictors of clinical outcomes. We retrospectively included all consecutive patients affected by stress or mixed urinary incontinence and treated with urethral bulking. Outcomes were evaluated via the PGI-I questionnaire and the 24-h pad test. Between January 2010 and January 2020, we treated 216 patients (Bulkamid n = 206; Macro-plastique n = 10). The median age at surgery was 66 years (IQR 55−73.75). The median follow-up was 12 months (IQR 12−24). In total, 23.8% of patients were subjected to prior incontinence surgery, 63.8% of patients were affected by genuine stress urinary incontinence, 36.2% reported mixed urinary incontinence, whereas detrusor overactivity was confirmed in only 24.9%. The dry rate was 32.9%; nevertheless, 69.9% of patients declared themselves “very improved” or “improved” (PGI-I1-2). Low complications were observed, mostly classified as Clavien I. After univariate and multivariate analyses, the only statistically significant independent predictor of “dry” outcome was the 24 h pad test, p < 0.001. Urethral bulking could be proposed with more expectations of success in patients with mild urinary incontinence. Patients affected by moderate−severe incontinence are less likely to obtain clinical success; therefore, they should be carefully counselled about clinical expectations before the procedure.

Keywords: bulkamid; female stress urinary incontinence; macroplastique; urethral bulking; urolastic.