Feasibility of Outpatient Stem Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma and Risk Factors Predictive of Hospital Admission

J Clin Med. 2022 Mar 16;11(6):1640. doi: 10.3390/jcm11061640.


High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains the standard of care for multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Although outpatient ASCT has been shown to be safe and feasible, the procedure is overall rare with most patients in the US undergoing inpatient ASCT. Furthermore, hospitalization rates for patients that undergo outpatient ASCT remain high. Adequate markers that predict hospitalization during outpatient ASCT are lacking, yet would be of great clinical value to select patients that are suited to outpatient ASCT. In this study we aimed to elucidate differences between planned outpatient and inpatient ASCT and further evaluated clinical characteristics that are significantly associated with hospitalization during planned outpatient hospitalization. Factors that were significantly associated with a planned inpatient ASCT included an advanced MM disease stage, worse performance status as well as non-Caucasian race, while low albumin levels and female gender were significantly associated with hospitalization during outpatient ASCT. The results of this analysis provide crucial knowledge of factors that are associated with planned inpatient ASCT and hospitalization during outpatient ASCT and could guide the treating physician in decision-making and further facilitate outpatient transplantation.

Keywords: autologous stem cell transplantation; hospitalization; multiple myeloma.