In recent years, with the advancement of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, gene panel tests have been approved in the field of cancer diseases, and approaches to prescribe optimal molecular target drugs to patients are being developed. In the field of rare diseases, whole-genome and whole-exome analysis has been used to identify the causative genes of undiagnosed diseases and to diagnose patients' diseases, and further progress in personalized medicine is expected. In order to promote personalized medicine in the future, we investigated the current status and progress of personalized medicine in disease areas other than cancer and rare diseases, where personalized medicine is most advanced. We selected rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis as the inflammatory disease, in addition to Alzheimer's disease. These diseases have high unmet needs for personalized medicine from the viewpoints of disease mechanisms, diagnostic biomarkers, therapeutic drugs with diagnostic markers and treatment satisfaction. In rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, there are many therapeutic options; however, diagnostic methods have not been developed to select the best treatment for each patient. In addition, there are few effective therapeutic agents in Alzheimer's disease, although clinical trials of many candidate drugs have been conducted. In rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, further elucidation of the disease mechanism is desired to enable the selection of appropriate therapeutic agents according to the patient profile. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, progress in preventive medicine is desired through the establishment of an early diagnosis method as well as the research and development of innovative therapeutic agents. To this end, we hope for further research and development of diagnostic markers and new drugs through progress in comprehensive data analysis such as comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic information. Furthermore, new types of markers such as miRNAs and the gut microbiome are desired to be utilized in clinical diagnostics.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; biomarker; precision medicine; psoriasis; rheumatoid arthritis.