Background: Benefit from blood glucose (BG) control during acute ischemic stroke may depend on glycemic parameters. We evaluated for associations between the SHINE (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort) randomized treatment group and the SHINE predefined 90-day functional outcome, within-patient subgroups defined by various glycemic parameters.
Methods: The SHINE Trial randomized 1151 patients within 12 hours with acute ischemic stroke and hyperglycemia to standard (target BG 80-179 mg/dL) or intensive (target BG 80-130 mg/dL) BG control for 72 hours. We predefined 6 glycemic parameters: acute BG level, absence versus presence of diagnosed and undiagnosed diabetes, hemoglobin A1c, glycemic gap (acute BG-average daily hemoglobin A1c based BG), stress hyperglycemia ratio (acute BG/average daily hemoglobin A1c based BG), and BG variability (SD). Favorable functional outcome was defined by the SHINE Trial and based on the modified Rankin Scale score at 90 days, adjusted for stroke severity. We computed relative risks adjusted for baseline stroke severity and thrombolysis use.
Results: Likelihood for favorable outcome was lowest among patients with undiagnosed diabetes compared to patients with true nondiabetes (adjusted relative risk, 0.42 [99% CI, 0.19-0.94]). We did not find any relationship between the favorable outcome rate and baseline BG or any of the glycemic parameters. No differences between SHINE treatment groups were identified among any of these patient subgroups.
Conclusions: In this exploratory subgroup analysis, intensive versus standard insulin treatment of hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke patient subgroups, did not influence the 90-day functional outcomes, nor did we identify associations between these glycemic parameters and 90-day functional outcomes.
Keywords: diabetes; glucose; hemoglobin; insulin; ischemic stroke.