Systemic exposure and urinary excretion of vanadium following perinatal subchronic exposure to vanadyl sulfate and sodium metavanadate via drinking water

Toxicol Lett. 2022 May 1;360:53-61. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2022.03.004. Epub 2022 Mar 21.


Vanadium is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant although there are limited data to assess potential adverse human health impact following oral exposure. In support of studies investigating the subchronic toxicity of vanadyl sulfate (V4+) and sodium metavanadate (V5+) following perinatal exposure via drinking water in male and female rats, we have determined the internal exposure and urinary excretion of total vanadium at the end of study. Water consumption decreased with increasing exposure concentration following exposure to both compounds. Plasma and urine vanadium concentration normalized to total vanadium consumed per day increased with the exposure concentration of vanadyl sulfate and sodium metavanadate suggesting absorption increased as the exposure concentration increased. Additionally, females had higher concentrations than males (in plasma only for vanadyl sulfate exposure). Animals exposed to sodium metavanadate had up to 3-fold higher vanadium concentration in plasma and urine compared to vanadyl sulfate exposed animals, when normalized to total vanadium consumed per day, demonstrating differential absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties between V5+ and V4+ compounds. These data will aid in the interpretation of animal toxicity data of V4+ and V5+ compounds and determine the relevance of animal toxicity findings to human exposures.

Keywords: Plasma vanadium; Sodium metavanadate; Urine vanadium; Vanadate; Vanadyl; Vanadyl sulfate.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Drinking Water*
  • Female
  • Male
  • Rats
  • Sodium
  • Vanadates / toxicity
  • Vanadium Compounds
  • Vanadium* / toxicity
  • Vanadium* / urine


  • Drinking Water
  • Vanadium Compounds
  • Vanadium
  • Vanadates
  • vanadyl sulfate
  • Sodium