Toxicity of benzyl benzoate as a food additive and pharmaceutical agent

Toxicol Ind Health. 2022 Apr;38(4):221-233. doi: 10.1177/07482337221086133. Epub 2022 Mar 25.

Abstract

Benzyl benzoate (BB), one of the benzyl derivates, is a component of brown aromatic resin in cinnamon oil and cough syrups and it is widely used in various fields in the perfume, pharmaceutical, and food industries. It is absorbed and hydrolyzed to benzoic acid and benzyl alcohol. Two different doses of BB (25 mg kg-1 body weight and 100 mg kg-1 body weight) were orally administered to 5-week old male rats for 90 days. Histopathological, morphological, hematological, and biochemical assays were performed in toxicological evaluations. Initial/final body weights, relative organ weights, and food and water consumptions of rats did not change significantly. There were statistically significant differences in terms of monocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte %, and serum AST levels in control and BB treatment groups. Several histopathological findings were observed in liver, kidney, thymus, prostate, and epididymis tissues of the rats in the treatment groups. Immunohistochemical examinations were also performed in the tissues for fibronectin (FN), type IV collagen, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2). Alterations in immunolocalization of these markers were observed between the control and the treatment groups. No changes were detected in the sperm count, daily sperm production, and sperm morphology.

Keywords: Benzyl derivatives; benzyl benzoate; extracellular matrix; hematology; histopathology; immunohistochemistry; subchronic toxicity.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Benzoates* / toxicity
  • Body Weight
  • Food Additives
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Rats
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2

Substances

  • Benzoates
  • Food Additives
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • benzyl benzoate