Skeletal muscle has an innate regenerative capacity to restore their structure and function following acute damages and injuries. However, in congenital muscular dystrophies, large volumetric muscle loss, cachexia, or aging, the declined regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle results in muscle wasting and functional impairment. Recent studies indicate that muscle mass and function are closely correlated with morbidity and mortality due to the large volume and location of skeletal muscle. However, the options for treating neuromuscular disorders are limited. Biomedical engineering strategies such as nanotechnologies have been implemented to address this issue.In this review, we focus on recent studies leveraging nano-sized materials for regeneration of skeletal muscle. We look at skeletal muscle pathologies and describe various proof-of-concept and pre-clinical studies that have used nanomaterials, with a focus on how nano-sized materials can be used for skeletal muscle regeneration depending on material dimensionality.Depending on the dimensionality of nano-sized materials, their application have been changed because of their different physical and biochemical properties.Nanomaterials have been spotlighted as a great candidate for addressing the unmet needs of regenerative medicine. Nanomaterials could be applied to several types of tissues and diseases along with the unique characteristics of nanomaterials. However, when confined to muscle tissue, the targets of nanomaterial applications are limited and can be extended in future research.
Keywords: Exosome; Muscle regeneration; Muscular dystrophy; Nanomaterial; Nanoparticle.
© 2022. This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.