Nutrition in Advanced Thyroid Cancer Patients

Nutrients. 2022 Mar 18;14(6):1298. doi: 10.3390/nu14061298.


In the last decade, multikinase inhibitors (MKIs) have changed the paradigm of treatment of advanced and progressive thyroid cancer. Compared with the traditional treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, these new drugs have shown a good efficacy in controlling the neoplastic disease, and also a different toxicity profile compared to traditional chemotherapy, milder but still present and involving mainly the nutritional profile. Weight loss, nausea, anorexia, stomatitis, diarrhea may be associated with malnutrition and cancer-related cachexia. The latter is characteristic of the advanced cancer stage and may be present before starting MKIs, or may develop afterwards. Adverse events with nutritional impact may cause a significant impairment of quality of life, often requiring dose reduction and sometimes drug discontinuation, but with a lower efficacy on the neoplastic disease. The aim of this paper was to discuss the role of nutritional therapy in advanced thyroid cancer and the importance of prevention, early recognition and careful management of malnutrition and cachexia during systemic therapy with MKIs.

Keywords: multikinase inhibitors; nutritional therapy; thyroid cancer.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cachexia / prevention & control
  • Cachexia / therapy
  • Humans
  • Nutritional Status
  • Nutritional Support / adverse effects
  • Quality of Life*
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / drug therapy
  • Thyroid Neoplasms* / therapy