Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous vaccines have been developed for the disease. However, with large-scale vaccination has come the gradual emergence of immunological phenomena caused by these new vaccines. Herein, we report a 48-year-old female with a sudden onset of inferior visual field defects in the left eye following her first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. Dilated fundus examination combined with optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography confirmed the diagnosis of branch retinal artery occlusion. Within 4 weeks following vaccination, symptoms associated with hearing impairment developed, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed leptomeningeal enhancement. The diagnosis of Susac syndrome (SS) was confirmed. The development of SS may be caused by endotheliopathy resulting from the molecular mimicry of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. Clinicians should be aware of the symptoms of SS, which may develop after COVID-19 vaccination. Further experimental surveillance and case-control studies are required to confirm this relationship.
Keywords: COVID-19 vaccine; Susac syndrome; adenoviral vector vaccine; case report.